This textile was thought to have been made between the 10th and 15th centuries C.E. in Egypt. It is linen, embroidered in blue silk in double running stitch. The size of the textile is 26.5 cm by 9.5 cm. In the middle of the textile there is a roll and fell seam sewn in flax, possibly from a shirt. The tiraz is in Kufic script, which translates as “blessing”.
The textile is currently in the Ashmolean Museum.
I have charted up the design & it is available for download as a pdf document.
I would love to see any garb with this design!
This textile, thought to have been a veil, was found in a reliquary in the Santa María del Rivero church alter. It had been wrapped around the item in the reliquary but the textile has now been restored.
It is 109 cm long and 18 cm wide base fabric of linen with the decoration a silk & linen tapestry weave. It has tiraz bands in the decoration, with the inscription of-
“In the name of god the indulgent, the merciful”
as well as-
“May divine blessing, prosperity and long life be attributed to the imam, god’s servant, Hisham, he who is the object of his benevolence, the emir of all believers.”
The kufic tiraz talks of Hisham, a 10th-11th century Caliph that ruled Cordoba during the Umayyad era. The animals in the tapestry woven roundels are birds and cats-
The textile can be seen through the Qantara website although the textile is in the Real Academia de la Historia in Madrid.
Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain edited Jerrilyn Dodds. Available to read online at the Internet Archive.
The Origin and Early Development of Floriated Kūfic by Adolf Grohmann. JStor article.
Material for a History of Islamic Textiles up to the Mongol Conquest by R. B. Serjeant. JStor article.
Ṭirāz Textiles from Egypt: Production, Administration and Uses of Ṭirāz Textiles from Egypt Under the Umayyad, ʻAbbāsid and Fāṭimid Dynasties by Jochen Sokoly. Phd thesis.
This shawl is from between the 3rd and 4th century C.E. The Egyptian shawl is plain weave linen, with a tapestry weave decoration sewn on. The size of the shawl is 70 cm by 45 cm. It is currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
This shawl has been tapestry woven with wool and linen between the 8th and 9th century. It is 21.9 cm by 33 cm. It is also has Coptic script on it, as opposed to tiraz bands with Arabic. It is currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Also made between the 8th and 9th century, this particular shawl is wool, tapestry woven with linen decorations. There is also Coptic script. It is 33 cm high by 79.4 cm wide. It is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
This shawl is much like the others- wool and linen tapestry woven with Coptic script. However by this stage there were also Arabic tiraz becoming the fashion from the Abbasid and Fatimid Empires. The shawl is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
This stucco statue is thought to be from an Iranian palace (unsure where) with similar statues found in audience chambers in palaces in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. The statue was made from the mid 11th-12th centuries out of carved, painted and gilded stucco. The height is 119.4 cm, the width 52.1 cm and the statue weighs 77.1 kg. The statue wears a crown and a large saber, so it is possible it is representative of a royal. The statue’s clothing is an embellished coat over a robe, with tiraz bands on each arm. The loose translation for the left arm is worshiper for the believers and the right arm translates to he returns/belongs to the believers. The statue is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This second statue is from the same palace complex and time period as the first statue. Also made of carved, painted and gilded stucco in the mid 11th-12th centuries, the statue is 143.5 cm high, 51.5 cm wide and weighs 198.2 kg. The statue is wearing a robe with an elaborate coat, also with tiraz bands on each arm. However, there is no translation of these. If you do know the translation or can read them, please let me know. The statue is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The Art of the Seljuqs of Iran (ca. 1040–1157) from the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.
Arab Painting: Text and Image in Illustrated Arab Manuscripts by Anna Contadini. Via Google Books.
Islamic Art by Richard Ettinghausen. JStor article.
The Flowering of Seljuq Art by Richard Ettinghausen. JStor article.
This textile fragment is 8.9 x 10.2 cm in size. It is a red silk twill weave, with a green and yellow border. Thought to have been made between the 7th-8th centuries, during the reign of Marwan II, the Umayyad caliph. He ruled in Damascus from 744-750 CE. This tiraz inscription, however, records the textile being made in Tunisia, or Ifriqiya. The incomplete tiraz translates to-
The servant of God, Marwan, Commander of the Faithful. Of what was ordered [to be made by] al-R. [or al-Z.] in the tiraz of Ifriqiya [Tunisia].
The textile is currently in the Brooklyn Museum.
Tiraz can be very useful in dating things to within a year of creation. This tiraz was made in the year 879–80 C.E. in Nishapur, Iran. It is made from a fabric known as mulham, which is silk warp and cotton (or linen) weft. The dimensions are 15.9 cm by 30.5 cm. The tiraz embroidery reads-
“[...] of the Faithful, may God [...] of what Ahmad, the brother of the Commander of the Faithful, ordered to be made in the tiraz of Nishapur, year 266 (879-880). Abu Abdallah al-Hamis (al-Tamis)”
Details of the embroidery- The stitches look to be a back stitch or a running stitch but I am happy to be corrected. The textile is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. There is a very good zoom function.
There is also more information in a previous post called Tiraz.
The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture: Vol 2 by Jonathan M. Bloom and Sheila Blair. Via Google Books.
Silk Economics and Cross-Cultural Artistic Interaction: Byzantium, the Muslim World, and the Christian West by David Jacoby. JStor article.
The Silk Road in World History by Xinru Liu. Via Google Books.
Two Islamic Embroideries in Gold on “Mulham” by Dorothy G. Shepherd. JStor article.
Arab dress; a short history: from the dawn of Islam to modern times by Yedida Kalfon Stillman and Norman A. Stillman. Via Google Books.
Tiraz: Textiles and Dress with Inscriptions in Central and Southwest Asia by Margaret Anne Deppe. Via Google Docs.